An Environmental History Contribution Toward
Elna Sunquist Bakker, Ivan Johnston, and Robert Jan 'Roy' van de Hoek's
Natural History of the Los Angeles Coast


Playa del Rey and Ballona Wetlands
Explored by Teen-aged Botanical Scientist
on
June 10, 1917

Ivan Murray Johnston (b.1898 - 1960)
Pomona College, Claremont, California (1916 - 1919)
Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (1925 - 1960)

and

Robert Jan 'Roy' van de Hoek (b.1956 - )
CSUN, Northridge, California (1974-1998)
El Camino College, Gardena, California(2003 - 2005)

An Internet Scientific - Educational Publication
©January, 2005



Restoration and Recovery
for
Elna Bakker, and Ivan Johnston:
"R&R" for the Playa del Rey Frogs and Plants

A Preliminary Essay
by
Robert Jan 'Roy' van de Hoek
Biogeographer and Naturalist
Sierra Club
322 Culver Boulevard, Suite 317
Playa del Rey, CA 90293
(310) 821-9045
robertvandehoek@yahoo.com

©2005


Ivan Johnston as a teenager became a genius in botany, particularly floristics, taxonomy, and systematics. His talents were recognized by Willis Jepson, Samuel Parish, Alice Eastwood, and many others. During his education at Pomona College (1917-1919), he began to collect native plants and weeds growing in southern California, particularly in Los Angeles County. His fascination appears to have been with plants found in marshy environments (wetlands). He collected plants in mountain meadows, hanging-cliffy marshes, vernal pools, and coastal wetlands, including the Ballona wetlands at Playa del Rey. Perhaps the earliest recognition of Ivan Johnston as a young and bright student of the California Flora was by Samuel Parish. In article about the vernal pools at Red Hill, near Upland, Samuel Parish says the following about Ivan Johnston: "Among some interesting plants sent me this spring by Mr. Ivan Johnston, an acute and enthusiastic botanical student at Pomona College...". This passageis the opening line of the short article by Samuel Parish that he published in 1917 in the Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. In that article he writes that May 4, 1917, Samuel Parish and Ivan Johnston visited the Red Hill vernal pools together in Upland (near Claremont) not too far from the Rancho Santa Botanic Garden, where many of Ivan Johnston's early plant specimens of his younger years are curated. As the elder botanist of California, Samuel Parish knew that Ivan Johnston was an emerging young botanist of talent and encouraged the young Ivan in his botanical passion. It is of interest to note that Ivan Johnston reciprocated several acknowledgements to Samuel Parish in the introduction of the Flora of the San Antonio Mountains with the following passage: "The San Antonio Mountains have been explored by all the well known botanists of southern California. The first to visit the mountains was Mr. S.B. Parish, who ascended them in 1880." Ivan Johnston also complimented Samuel Parish again in the Catalogue preface: "For invaluable help in the preparation of this paper the author is under especial obligations to Mr. S.B. Parish of San Bernardino. His help in taxonomic difficulties, his suggestions and kindly criticisms all warrant the writer's sincere gratitude." It is plainly evident that Ivan Johnston and Samuel Parish appreciated the abilities of each other. Interestingly, Ivan Johnston was a teenager and Samuel Parish was a senior, in his 70s, when the two corresponded and met each other. So the picture that emerges is of Ivan, the young botanical student, and Samuel the elder (wisdom keeper) of the flora of southern California, both native plants and alien plants that were rapidly immigrating into southern California from all over the world, and would soon take over and dominate the native plants. The complete herbarium of thousands of plants collected by Samuel Parish is at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco. It is an absolute mine of information on the early flora and ecology of southern California. And the plants collected by Ivan Johnston are in Claremont at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. However, there are even more of Ivan Johnston plants at Harvard University in the Gray Herbarium because he moved to Boston (Massachusetts) and left California by about 1925.

Ivan Johnston was born in 1898, so he was 21 years old by the time he completed this San Antonio Mountains florisitic monograph. More amazing is that he was just a teenager when he began ascending the San Gabriel Mountains in search of the unusual and rare and common native wildflowers, trees, and shrubs in the highest parts of the San Gabriel Mountains. When his Flora was published and Ivan Johnston graduated from Pomona State College, he moved to Berkeley to become a graduate student at the young age of 20 years old. He studied under the elder botanist, Dr. Willis Jepson. It is possible to discern when Ivan Johnston developed his keen interest in the Family Boraginaceae, including Heliotropium as shortly after he meets Jepson at UC Berkeley. At that University, we discover that Willis Jepson appreciated his knowledge and contribution by the following quote from Jepson in 1943, in volume 3, of his multivolume Flora of California.

Jepson wrote:
"In August, 1918, one of the author's graduate students at Berkeley came seeking advice as to the suitable piece of research in the field of systematic botany. To this student (later an investigator) was recommended the family Boraginaceae, especially as developed in western America, because it provides problems so profound as to furnish a challenge to the highest powers of observation, penetration, judgement and skill in the apprehension of genera of species. The following list of papers (citing only those relating to western America) in content and scope shows how far this research botanist has since traveled the road of "his beloved borages": Johnston,I.M., Restoration of genus Hackelia(Contrib.Gray Herb.68: 43-48, - 1923) ... " The quoted passage just scribed above was published by Willis Jepson with all its praises of Ivan Johnston 60 years ago. Three years later Jepson would pass away from the living Earth, and Ivan Johnston would continue to live until 1960, when he too would pass away from our living Earth. Both Willis Jepson and Ivan Johnston have left us a legacy about California native plants in terms of both the beautiful uniqueness of native plants and also in their scientific-educational awareness of evolution of species in California and the Earth.

I learn so much as I research early botanists and as I scribe and compile the reports of early naturalist-scientists such as those of Ivan Johnston and Willis Jepson, written 84 years ago, when he was a young man. After exploring the San Gabriel Mountains for native plants and in the lowlands of southern California, he later moved east to become a botanist at Harvard University. He left his home in southern California, but he made several return trips to southern California. He would go on to write many more important botanical reports and Floras of the tropical regions of South and Central America. He would also work on native floristic botany of islands, and become an expert in the family Boraginanceae, among others. While working on this Flora of the San Gabriel Mountains, he took time to visit the vernal pools atop Red Hill in Upland. In fact, one of the very first collecting trips as a young botanist was also to Upland, because he collected the low number of #52 for a Horkelia cuneata, which is curated in the New York Botanic Garden. This native plant is also a wetland and marsh plant that is commonly referred to as cinquefoil and is closely related to the Potentillas.

He also made collecting trips to other places of southern California. For example, he made at least two separate collecting trips to the Ballona wetlands because there is a #1336 from Ballona, according to Munz and Johnston (1925) in their article Potentillas of Southern California, in the Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Also, there is a #1900 collected at Playa del Rey as reported by Hall and Clements (1923) in their monograph of Carnegie Institute of Washington. At Ballona, on both visits he would have collected numerous plants, including that #1900, which is an unusual form of Lenscale, or Brewers Saltbush. His interest in wetlands also took him in 1924 to visit Baldwin Lake in the San Bernardino Mountains because he collected Potentilla anserina, which is in the herbarium at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.

Perhaps the most interesting narrative written by Ivan Johnston refers to a rare marshy area in the San Gabriel Mountains located on the Prairie Fork of the San Gabriel River. Today, we call these marshy and meadow areas with a new ecological habitat name as "wetlands." Some scientists call these places "hanging gardens." His description of this marshy wetland on Prairie Fork is found in the description of Dodecatheon jeffreyi, (Shooting Star), in the Family Primulaceae (Primrose Family) and is easily missed and barely discernable in the narrative text of his catalogue of plants. I present that brief description of a wetland in the San Gabriel Mountains for educational and scientific purposes as follows:
"One of most interesting discoveries in a small marsh which is located in a side cañon of Prairie Fork. The marsh has a rather steep pitch and as a result there are several well defined drainage channels in which the water comes nearer to the surface and the dense growth of fireweed and grasses is broken. In these mossy, water-saturated lanes this Dodecatheon grows. With it are Carex aurea celsa, C. sufusca, Juncus mertensianus, Sisyrinchium oreophilum, and Trifolium monanthum grantianum. The plant was devoid of any odor. The mouth of the side cañon in which the marsh is located is marked by a large, red, USFS tool -box. The marsh is at 7000 ft. alt. in the upper Transition Zone. (Nos. 1648, 2100)."

My contribution to this report is to have created a numerical and chronological system of the visits of Ivan Johnston, in order to conduct a unique ecological analysis. Just to show how the numerical numbering system is helpful, look at the sequence of Numbers 1390 to 1393, which represents a guild of species together. A search for Ivan Johnston archives will likely record additional information about rare plants of southern California.

However, there are limits to the research potential of the numerical numbering system. For example, Ivan Johnston wrote on page 88 in a discussion about Argemone platyceras,the following description of the distribution on the Prairie Fork of the San Gabriel River: "In the Lower Transition it is not uncommon in the sandy ground in Prairie Fork..." Another example is Mentzelia laevicaulis, where Ivan Johnston (page 109) did not make a voucher specimen number but wrote descriptively that this member of the Loasaceae family being found on the Prairie Fork with its habitat as: "Dry sandy ground on both sides of the mountain. ... Collected also in the Upper Transition Zone at 8000 ft. at the Old Gold Ridge Mine." Note however that there is no Johnston Number (#) so it was collected by another botanical collector. Yet a third example is for the two species of cactus that occur in the San Gabriels, which Ivan Johnston did not collect, very likely due to the difficulty of making plant specimens.

In field studies of Ivan Johnston as he collected native plants in the San Gabriel Mountains, I discovered that he wrote about a marshy wetland in the mountains and listed the plants that he found there. The research into early naturalists such as Ivan Johnston can elucidate much about our history, geography, as well as guiding us to do restoration and recovery of damaged and lost natural ecosystems that existed before massive urbanization and the baby boom of soldiers and citizens with their new wives began moving to California after World War II, for the dream of a home, perennial sunshine, warm weather, and manicured beaches with palm trees planted there from different parts the world. The natural landscape disappeared at the coming of an artificial landscape. Now, 50 years later, a movement is coming into being in southern California to restore and recover the natural landscapes, such as along the Los Angeles River, San Gabriel River, Santa Ana River, and at wetlands such as Ballona, Bolsa Chica, Cerritos, Newport Bay, and many more places. Vernal pools in Costa Mesa, coastal sage scrub in the Baldwin Hills and Chino Hills, and grasslands and walnut woodlands at Debs Park and Griffith Park are all ventures that bring a geography of hope to southern California. The field work of naturalist-scientists such as Ivan Johnston and others will need to be researched again and again to know what the genuine aspects of recovery and restoration are for southern California and its natural landscape with a geography of hope.

Postcript: This project, thus far, has been a labor of love for a geography of hope. It is a new kind of research that utilizes a combination of ecological, biographical, and historical methods to elucidate in this case, Ivan Johnston, his peers, colleagues, and mentors, his travels and ecology interests in explaining wetlands, namely the hillsides marshes and meadows.

[Work in Progress, to be compiled fully by Robert Roy van de Hoek as time and money allows].


NUMERICAL - GEOGRAPHICAL - CALENDAR - NATIVE PLANT CATALOGUE:
(including future Location Index)
Compiled by Robert Jan 'Roy' van de Hoek

June 10, 1917
1312 ... Playa del Rey. Erysimum insulare suffrutescens. "In sand dunes and cliffs."
1313 ... Playa del Rey.
1314 ... Near Mesmer ... Cressa truxillensis.
1315 ... Playa del Rey.
1316 ... Playa del Rey.
1317 ... Playa del Rey ... Ambrosia chamissonis.
1318 ... Playa del Rey.
1319 ... Playa del Rey.
1320 ... Playa del Rey.
1321 ... Playa del Rey.
1322 ... Playa del Rey.
1323 ... Playa del Rey.
1324 ... Playa del Rey.
1325 ... Playa del Rey.
1326 ... Playa del Rey.
1327 ... Playa del Rey.
1328 ... Playa del Rey.
1329 ... Playa del Rey.
1330 ... Playa del Rey.
1331 ... Playa del Rey.
1332 ... Playa del Rey.
1333 ... Playa del Rey.
1334 ... Playa del Rey.
1335 ... Playa del Rey.
1336 ... Playa del Rey ... Potentilla pacifica. ... "Ballona Marsh."

1337 ...
2100 ... 7000' ... Prairie Fork. "Locally abundant in marsh in a side cañon." Dodecatheon redolens. Primulaceae.

2169 ... 0000' ... Upland (west of) on Santa Fe R.R. siding. June 1919. Alliona nyctaginea Bull Torr. Bot. Club. 49(12):351, 1922.


California State Bear Flag California State Parks Bear Logo California State Bear Flag
California State Park Needed
for the
San Gabriel Mountains
and
Ballona Wetlands


Natural History Links to Related Web Pages on Wetlands, Mountains, and Iva Johnston
Mammals of the San Gabriel Mountains, by Terry Vaughan 1954

Flora of the San Gabriel Mountains, by Ivan Johnston

A Taxonomic and Ecologic Study of the Flora of San Gabriel River Canyon, by James Robinson

Samuel Parish, 1917 vernal pool article that discusses Ivan Johnston at Red Hill in Upland on May 4, 1917.

1919 Introduction by Ivan Johnston
The San Gabriel Mountains are a well defined division of the southern extension of the Sierra Nevada Range. With the exception of the extreme eastern portion, they lie wholly within the boundary of Los Angeles County, California, and stretch their sixty miles of length as a barrier between the Mohave Desert to their north, and the cooler coastal plain to their south.

The San Antonio Mountains have been explored by all the well known botanists of southern California. The first to visit the mountains was Mr. S.B. Parish, who ascended them in 1880. Prof. A.J. McClatchie was the next visitor, who collected on Baldy in August, 1893. During successive springs of 1899 and 1900, Dr. H.M. Hall explored and made collections on the northern base of the mountains. In July 1901 and 1902 Dr. LeRoy Abrams visited Baldy Summit and in the summer of 1908, accompanied by Mr. E.A. McGregor, he collected in Swartout Valley and Lone Pine Cañon. Several other persons have made collections in the San Antonio Mountains, among whom are, - Mr. J.B. Leiberg, Mrs. Charlotte M. Wilder and Mr. Fred Burlew. It is interesting to note, that with the exception of Professor McClathie and Mrs. Wilder, all the collectors worked on the north side of the mountain. The most of the collecting seems to have been done along the so-called, "Glen Ranch Trail to Baldy." Although the mountains have had a number of visitors they have had by no means a thorough botanical exploration. The visitors have made but hurried dashes into the more accessible parts, covering the same ground as their predecessors, and spending in the pine belt only a day or two. Realizing that much of the mountain was either untouched or very imperfectly known we planned and made a series of ten collecting trips into the pine belt. These trips, which were made during the spring and summer of 1917 and 1918, total twenty-nine days; on them we visited all the cañons and peaks with the exception only of Swartout Valley and Lone Pine Cañon. These two cañons were not visited because of lack of time. However, thanks to the efforts of Dr. Hall and Dr. Abrams, they are the best known parts of the San Antonio Mountains.

The only literature dealing in any way with the San Antonio Mountains is Dr. Abrams' Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity, (2) which has a range so defined as to include the coastal slopes. While fairly satisfactory in the Upper Sonoran Zone, it was found to be of little or no value in the pine belt, a fact not surprising if one remembers that our knowledge of the south slope has been obtained by two hurried collectors.

The San Gabriel Mountains are one of the least known of the Southern California group, a fact which is very apparent if they are compared with the San Jacinto (3) or San Bernardino (4) Mountains. The writer hopes that the following paper, while only dealing with a limited portion of the San Gabriel Mountains, will be a contribution towards the desired knowledge of their flora.

Three life zones are distinguishable in the San Antonio Mountains: the Upper Sonoran, Transition, and Canadian. The Upper Sonoran Zone includes the bases of the mountains, never ascending higher than 6000 feet altitude. This zone is recognized at once by the presence of dense thickets of shrubs, called chaparral, which cover the mountain side. The chaparral belt does not have its tweny-five or more component shrubs in an unvarying mixture, for not only are some species restricted geographically, but on the coastal slope, in response to differences in moisture and temperature, two distinguishable life belts have been formed within the chaparral belt. These are hereafter designated as the "Upper" and "Lower Chaparral Belt." The Lower Chaparral Belt is characterized by the dominance of such shrubs as, Adenostoma fasiculatum, Quercus dumosa, and Ceanothus crassifolius. On south facing slopes these plants grow abundantly below 4500 feet altitude, on north slopes they seldom reach an altitude of 3000 feet. The Upper Chaparral Belt, on the other hand, is found usually above the 4500 feet contour on south slopes, and never lower than 3000 feet on north facing slopes. Arctostaphylos tomentosa, Quercus wislizeni and Ceanothus divaricatus are the dominant shrubs in the Upper Chaparral Belt.

Since we have not visited the desert base of the mountains we are unable to discuss its Upper Sonoran flora. Because of this fact and because the composition of the chaparral is well known and similar to that found in adjacent territory we have not included the chaparral flora in the catalogue which forms the bulk of this paper.


The Transition Zone, usually found between 5500 and 8000 feet altitude, is for all practical purposes coincident with the occurrence of Pinus ponderosa and its variety jeffreyi. The Transition, like the Upper Sonoran Zone, has been conveniently divided into two parts. The upper, which usually lies above 6750 feet altitude, has been designated as the Upper Transition Zone and is characterized by the dominance of Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana. To the lower part, where typical Pinus ponderosa is most abundant, the name Lower Transition Zone has been applied The following list of perennials appear to be restricted to the designated divisions of the Transition Zone.

Plants restricted to the Lower Transition Zone
Sitanion minus californicum


Plants restricted to the Coastal Dune System
1. Lupinus chamissonis
2. Phacelia ramosissima
3. Abronia umbellata
4. Eriogonum parvifolium
5. Erysimum insulare suffrutescens
6. Ambrosia chamissonis
7. Croton californicus
8. Lotus scoparius
9. Camissonia cheiranthifolia


A large number of plants which are confined to the Transition Zone seem to range throughout the zone irrespective of subzones. Among these are, -
Plants ranging throughout the Transition Zone
Pellaea wrightiana californica


The great majority of plants usually extends up into the Canadian Zone or down into the Upper Sonoran Zone. The more conspicuous examples of these are given in the following lists.

Plants common to the Transition and Upper Sonoran Zone
Pteris aquilina lanuginosa

Plants common to the Transition and Canadian Zone
Sitanion minus

The composition of the Transition flora is somewhat different on the two sides of the mountain. The most conspicuous difference is the absolute lack of Ceanothus cordulatus, Artemisia tridentata and Tetradymia canescens on the south or coastal side. On the desert side these three are the most common shrubs. There are a number of plants which, while present on the south side, are very much less frequent there than they are on the north side. This list includes, - Prunus demissa, Fremontia californica, Gayophytum casesium, Castilleja muniata, and Chrysotham[n]us nauseosus. The south side of the mountain is strikingly lacking in plants which are peculiar to it.


The Canadian Zone, in the San Antonio Mountains, is characterized by Pinus murrayana and Draba corrugata. It includes most of the mountains above 8000 feet altitude, embracing an area of about ten square miles. The largest part of the zone consists of bare exposed ridges, but there are, in a few scattered spots, small protected areas which bear a Canadian Zone flora. No water is found within the Canadian Zone and hence the flora is somewhat limited.

Plants restricted to the Canadian Zone
Pinus murrayana
Carex abrupta
Calyptridium parryi
Arenaria nuttallii gracilis
Draba corrugata
Ribes montigenum
Heuchera abramsii
Galium multiflorum parviflorum
Erigeron jacinteus
Crepis nana


Since the flora of the summit of Mt. San Antonio may be of interest the following list is given, which includes those plants growing between 10,000 and 10,080 ft. altitude, or those growing within about fifty yards of the summit cairn.

Summit flora of Mt. San Antonio (10,000-10,080 ft.)
Pinus murrayana
Sitanion minus
Carex abrupta
Allium breweri
Castanopsis sempervirens
Eriogonum umbellatum minus
Eriogonum saxtile
Arabis platysperma
Draba corrugata
Heuchera abramsii
Ribes montigenum
Sericotheca concolor
Viola purpurea
Drydophytum vestitum
Gilia pungens tenuioloba
Collinsia torreyi wrightii
Galium multiflorum parvifolium

Bibliography
(1). Leiberg, J.B. 1898. Resources of the Angeles National Forest.
(2). Abrams, LeRoy. 1904. Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity.
(3). Hall, Harvey Monroe. 1902. Flora of the San Jacinto Mountains. U.C. Publications in Botany.
(4). Parish, Samuel Bonsall. 1916. An Enumeration of the Pteridophytes and Angiosperms of the San Bernardino Mountains. Plant World.


CATALOGUE OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF THE WETLAND BELT
The following catalogue is founded mainly on collections made by the author [Ivan Johnston]. A number of species have been collected in the San Antonio Mountains by others which the writer [Ivan Johnston] failed to discover. In such cases, if the specimen was seen, the record was incorporated into the catalogue along with the name of the collector and the number of the collection. If the specimens forming the basis of record were not available for study then the published record was copied verbatim and its location given. Our list, thus formed, now includes 315 species and varieties of native plants. Introduced plants, which number about 20, have not been included in the catalogue.

Many notes on distribution, abundance and habitats were made during our exploration of the mountains. These notes, supplemented by less extensive ones made previous to 1917, form the basis for the discussion under each species treated. The discussions of systematic relationships are the outcome of a careful study of herbarium material and of much time spent over the taxonomic literature. It is perhaps unnecessary to state that all statements concerning distribution, etc., are founded on, and concern only, the species as it occurs in the San Antonio Mountains. In a majority of cases the habitat, zonal distribution and abundance is the same as it is in the San Bernardino or San Jacinto Mountains but this, however, is not always the case.

For invaluable help in the preparation of this paper the author is under especial obligations to Mr. S.B. Parish of San Bernardino. His help in taxonomic difficulties, his suggestions and kindly criticisms all warrant the writer's sincere gratitude. To Dr. H.M. Hall of the University of California we are also much indebted for his courtesy and interest, and especially for the privileges granted us while working in the herbarium under his charge. We wish to acknowledge the help of several other taxonomists, among whom are Mrs. Agnes Chase, Dr. J.M. Greenman, Dr. W.L. Jepson, Prof. M.E. Jones, Mr. J.F. Macbride, Mr. K.K. Mackenzie, Mr. W.R. Maxon, Dr. B.L. Robinson, Dr. J.N. Rose, Dr. P.A. Rydberg, Mr. Camillo Schneider and Mr. G.P. Van Eseltine.

Ophioglossacae
Botrychium lunaria (L.) Swz. Not uncommon in springy ground near 7000 ft. alt. in Coldwater Fork Lytle Creek.

Polypodiaceae
Pteris aquilegia var. lanuginosa. Common in springy ground in both the Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones. (No.1617.)

Equisetaceae
Equisetum funstoni A.A. Eaton. Occasional along streams in the Transition Zone. Reaching 7000 ft. alt. (No. 1723).

Selaginellacae
Selaginella bigelovii Underw. A very common Upper Sonoran species... Collected at 6000 ft. alt. on the west side of Ontario Peak.

Pinaceae
Pinus lambertiana Dougl. Very common in the fir forests of the Upper Transition Zone. Not seen lower than 5500 ft.

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa (Torr.) Mayr. Frequent in the Upper Chaparral Belt and Lower Transition Zone. It grows at the mouth of San Antonio Cañon, alt. 2000 ft. and as high as 7000 ft. alt. in Icehouse Cañon.

Abies concolor Lindl. & Gord. Common in the Upper Transition Zone, where it is the dominant tree.

Cupressaceae
Libocedrus decurrens Torr. General throughout the Transition Zone but not very common. In the lower part of the zone it is found wholly in moist canñons or on stream banks, but in the upper part it is often found growing on talus slopes or rocky mountain sides with fir and pine. Occasional trees are found in moist situations in the chaparral blt descending as low as 2700 ft. alt. (No. 1624).

Juniperus occidentalis Hook. One of the less common trees. In our mountains the tree grows only in the Upper Transition Zone. The scattered colonies have been found between 8000 ft. (Old Gold Ridge Mine) and 9660 ft. alt. (Pine Mountain Summit). (Nos. 1400, 1623).

Gnetaceae
Ephedra viridis Coville. A large colony on a dry, sunny hillside, alt. 5000 ft., in Prairie Fork, San Gabriel River. This station is on the lower edge of the Transition Zone. Frequent on the desert base of the mountains. (No. 1721).

Poaceae
Stipa occidentalis Thurb. Not uncommon in bare rocky slopes in the Upper Transition and Canadian Zones. (Nos. 1504, 1537.)

Poa secunda. Common in dry ground in the chaparral belt and in the Transition Zone. (No. 1355).

Cyperaceae
Carex aurea celsa. Abundant in springy ground ...Always growing with Sisyrinchium. (No. 1391)
Carex subfusca. side cañon of Prairie Fork, alt. 7000 ft. (No. 1393).

Juncaceae
Juncus mertensiana. Abundant in marshy ground in a side cañon of Prairie Fork, alt. 7000 ft. (No. 1390).

Liliaceae
Yucca whipplei Torr. This common valley species ranges well into the Transition Zone. One plant was noted at 8200 ft. alt. on the steep south slope of Ontario Peak.
Lilium parryi Watson. Very common at 7000 ft. alt., Upper Transition Zone, in a small side cañon of Prairie Fork. (No.1703).

Calochortus invenustus. In decomposed granite in the Upper Transition Zone. Frequent. (Nos. 1397, 1606).

Iridaceae
Sisyrinchium oreophilum Bickn. Common in springy places in the Upper Transition Zone, Not seen lower than 6500 ft., nor higher than 8200 ft. alt. Certainly distinct from the valley form, being smaller, more slender and unbranched; the fruit is smaller and thinner walled; the flower is smaller and much darker in color. A good variety at least. Det. E.P. Bicknell. (No. 1409)

Orchidaceae
Limnorchis sparsiflora (Watson) Rydberg. Frequent in marshes in the lower two-thirds of the Transition Zone. Highest seen at 8000 ft. at the Old Gold Ridge Mine. Our lower station is the marsh below Camp Baldy, whre it is very common at 4200 ft. alt. in the Upper Chaparral Belt. (No. 1433).

Salicaceae
Salix cordata. Very common in springy ground in the Upper Transition Zone, where it is usually found growing between 6500 and 8000 ft. (Nos. 1286, 1408, 1665, 1955, 1980.)

Betulaceae
Alnus rhombifolia Nutt. Common along streams in the Upper Sonoran and Lower Transition Zones. Ascending as high as 7000 ft. alt.

Fagaceae
Castanopsis sempervirens (Kell.) Dudley. Common from the upper part of the Transition Zone to Baldy Summit. The plant blooms in August during which time one is nearly sickened by its odor. (No. 1541).

Loranthaceae
Arceuthobium campylopodum Engelm. On Pinus lambertiana at 7500 ft. alt. in Coldwater Fork Lytle Creek, and Pinus ponderosa at 6500 ft. alt. in Prairie Fork. (Nos. 1688, 1720.)

Urticaceae
Urtica holosericea Nutt. Abundant in the valleys, but only occasional in the Lower Transition Zone. We were surprised to find it abundant at 8000 ft. alt. in the Upper Transition Zone at the Old Gold Ridge Mine. (No.1605.)

Polygonaceae
Eriogonum saxatile Watson. A common plant of Upper Transition... (No. 1382).
Eriogonum umbellatum Frequent in dry ground under the pines. (No. 1383).

Portulacaceae
Calyptridium monandrum Nutt. Not uncommon in dry ground along the lower edges of the pine belt.

Calyptridium parryi Gray. Frequent in the Canadian Zone on bare stretches of decomposed granite.

Calyptridium umbellatum (Nutt.) Greene. Common in open ground under the pines in the Upper Transition Zone and on bare ridges in the Canadian Zone. Ranging between 7500 and 9700 ft. alt. (Nos. 1273, 1397).

Lewisia rediviva Pursh. Common in rocky exposed places throughout the Transition Zone. (Nos. 1280, 1412, 1470, 1493).

Calyptridium monandrum (T. & G.) Jeps. var. viridis (Davidson) Jeps. Locally abundant on a sunny talus slope in the Upper Transition Zone, at 7000 ft. alt. in Icehouse Cañon. Collected "near Old Baldy" at 5750 ft. alt. by Dr. Hall (no.1245). The type was collected in Rock Creek just west of our limits. (No.2037).

Caryophyllaceae
Silene verecunda. Wats. In the higher part of this zone it is very common in moist shaded ground under pines. (No.1386.)

Ranunculaceae
Aquilegia truncata F. & M. Common in springy places. Transition Zone and lower (No. 1532.)

Delphinium hesperium Gray, var. recurvatum (Greene) Jeps. "San Antonio Mts., 5750 ft. alt. Hall" and "Lytle Creek Cañon, 5500 ft. alt. Hall" acc. Davidson, (Muhl.4:34, 1908). Here, very likely, belongs the common larkspur noted in Prairie Fork of which we have seen only fruiting specimens.

Thalictrum polycarpum Wats. Common in moist ground bordering streams in the upper parts of Prairie Fork San Gabriel River and North Fork Lytle Creek, Upper Transition Zone, Alt. 7000-8000 ft. Also at 5000 ft. in Prairie Fork. (Nos. 1677, 2093.)

Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. Ranges from the lower cañons up to an altitude of 7000 ft. in the pine belt.

Lauraceae
Umbellularia californica Nutt. This Upper Sonoran tree ranges a short way up into the pine belt.

Papaveraceae
Argemone platyceras. Linkk. & Otto. var. hispida (Gray) Prain. With wide distribution in the mountain but not especially common. In the Upper Transition Zone at 9000 fet. on the Devils Backbone and 8000 ft. alt. at the Old Gold Ridge Mine. In the Lower Transition it is is not uncommon in the sandy ground in Prairie Fork and North Fork Lytle Creek.

Cruciferae
Draba corrugata Wats. D. vestita Davidson. A very common an characteristic plant of the Canadian Zone. Usually growing under the pines, but on Baldy Summit it is common among loose rocks.

A plant collected by Burlew on Baldy Summit was made the type of D. vestita, a species descrbied by its author as differing from D. corrugata in being more hirsute and more compact in habit, and in having shorter petals and less corrugated fruit. Dr. Davidson mentions certain collections from the San Jacinto Mtns. that in his mind represent typical corrugata. From our studies of herbarium material it appears that D. corrugata is represented in the San Jacinto Mtns. by a very distinct geographical variety that is characterized by its long petals, slightly smaller and more contorted fruit and by its slender, naked, unbranched stems bearing a simple, open few flowered raceme. The plants from the San Antonio Mts. and those from the San Bernardino Mts. agree in having very short inconspicuous petals, rather large, little contorted fruit and stout, leafy, much branched stems that form dense, many flowered panicles. This form is apparently the typical plant for the type was collected by Lemmon on Grayback in the San Bernardino Mts. It thus appears that vestita was described through a misconception as to what constituted the true corrugata and that the well marked variation on Mt. San Jacinto through which this misconception arose, is still without a name. (Nos. 1279, 1416, 1609.)

Sisymbrium canescens Nutt. Dry sandy ground in the lower part of the pine belt. Common in the chaparral belt.

Dentaria californica Nutt. Rare in cool, moist places in the lower part of the pine belt; frequent in the chaparral belt.

Arabis arcuata Gray. Frequent in dry rocky ground throughout the Lower Transition Zone. It descends the cañons on the south side of and reaches a minimum altitude of 1000 ft. in the gravelly wash of San Antonio Canon.

The pine belt form has its pods uniformly shorter than the Upper Sonoran plant. The valley and chaparral belt plant has pods 7-9 cm. long; the pine belt form has its pods only 3-5 cm. in length. (Nos. 1359, 1589, 1951, 1952, 1956, 1973).

Arabis glabra (L.)Bernh. Occasional in the lower parts of the pine belt; common at lower levels.

Arabis repanda Wats. Frequent in dry open ground under the pines in the Upper Transition Zone. (Nos. 1464, 1663).

Arabis platysperma Gray. Frequent under the pines in the Upper Transition and Canadian Zone. Exceedingly abundant in the vicnity of Kelly's Cabin. A single plant was found on Baldy Summit. (Nos. 1465, 1560).

Erysimum asperum DC. Common in dry open ground under the pines in the Lower Transition Zone.

Streptanthus campestris Wats. var. bernardinus (Greene) Johnston, comb. nov. Agianthus bernardinus Greene. Shaded ground under the pines in South Fork Lytle Creek, alt. 6000 ft.

This variety is a lower and more slender plant than the species with smaller, yellow flowers which have recurved sepals. Though quite distinct in their extremes, the species and the variety are well connected by intermediate forms. (No.1477).

Caulanthus amplexicaulis Wats. Common in dry situations throughout the Transition Zone. (Nos. 1267, 1467).

Crassulaceae
Sedum anomalum (Britton) B. & R. On the west end of Ontario Peak, in Cascade Cañon, this is very abundant on a talus-covered north-facing slope. Lower Transition Zone, 4500-6500 ft. alt. Det. J.N. Rose. (Nos. 1288, 1814, 2053).

Saxifragaceae
Heuchera abramsii Rydb. Common at the type station on Baldy Summit. We found the plant also on the west spur of Baldy and on Pine Mountain. On these ridges it descends to the lower edges of the Canadian Zone, where it was found to grow with H. elegans. We looked for signs of intergradation but none could be detected even when the two species grew near each other. (Nos. 1417, 1690, 1728, 2096.)

Platanaceae
Platanus racemosa Nutt. Ranging a short distance up into the pine belt, but characteristic of lower altitudes. [no voucher listed].

Rosaceae
Sericotheca concolor Rydb. Common in dry exposed places in the Canadian Zone and not uncommon on dry, open, sandy cañon floors of the Upper Transition Zone. In both Icehouse Cañon and Middle Fork Lytle Creek it was found at as low as 6500 ft. alt. (Nos. 1270, 1566, 1570, 1582, 1696).

Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. Icehouse Cañon at 7250 ft. alt. and 7000 ft. alt. in both Coldwater Fork Lytle Creek and Prairie Fork. The first station is on a dry rocky place on the canon floor while the other stations are both in springy ground.

Our plants have the glabrous hypanthia and sepals of the segregate, A. recurvata Abrams. A. venulosa Greene, another segregate of A. alnifolia, is reported from Swartout Valley by Abrams (Bull. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 6:382, 1910). (Nos. 1388, 1539, 1681, 1711).

Heteromeles arbutifolia Roem. Enters the pine belt in Prairie Fork and in San Antonio Cañon.

Drymocallis viscida Parish. Common in moist ground in the Transition Zone. (Nos. 1410, 2062, 2068, 2072).

Drymocallis lactea (Greene) Rydb. Locally very abundant in a marsh in a small side cañon of Prairie Fork. Upper Transition Zone, alt. 7000 ft. (No. 2066).

Cercocarpus betulaefolius Nutt. Frequent in the lower parts of the pine belt.

Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. As a shrub at its lower limits and a tree in its upper ranges, this species extends throughout the Transition Zone and well into the Canadian. (No. 1485).

Rubus leucodermis Dougl. Occasional in moist rocky ground in Transition Zone. (No. 1462).

Rubus parviflorus Nutt. "In moist shady places in the San Antonio and San Bernardino Mountains in the pine belt." Acc. Abrams, Fl. Los Ang.

Prunus demissa Walp. Scarce on the south side of the mountains, but common on the north side. Especially abundant in Prairie Fork between 5000 and 7000 ft. alt. A few plants grow on the Devils Backbone at 9000 ft. alt. The species is confined to the Transition Zone. (Nos. 1384, 1402, 1712).

Prunus ilicifolia Nutt. In San Antonio Cañon this enters a short distance up into the pine belt.

Prunus emarginata Walp. We know the plant from only two stations, both of which are in the Transition Zone, one in the lower part, the other in the upper. Coldwater Fork Lytle Creek, alt. 5750 ft. and near the head of San Antonio Cañon at 7600 ft. Dr. Hall collected the species also at 5700 ft. in Lytle Creek (No. 1471) as well as "north of San Antonio Peak at 8500 ft. alt." Our plant is a shrub which is seldom higher than 1 1/2 meters and is similar in pubescence to the var. mollis Brew. (Nos. 1666, 1680, 2079).

Rosa californica Cham. & Sch. Barely entering the pine belt.

Rosa gratissima Greene. Several large thickets of this rose were found in a moist meadow near the Native Son Mine in Prairie Fork.

Specimens were sent to Dr. Rydberg who determined them as R. mohavensis Parish. Mr. Parish, however, is very unwilling to see our plants referred to this species so we are following Abrams (Bull. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 6:380, 1910) in referring this form, which he collected in Swartout Canon, to R. gratissima. In Rydberg's key (Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 44:65, 1917) our plant seems to fall into R. mohavensis. Our plants, as well as those collected by Hall (No.1513) at 6200 ft. alt. in Swartout Valley, differ from the roses collected near the type station of R. mohavensis in being moree or less distinctly bicolored, slightly puberulent, darker, and not at all shiny. (No. 1704).

Fabaceae
Lupinus grayi Wats. We are placing under this species all our lupines which have a woody caudex. The species thus defined contains two well marked forms which after some study may prove to be distinct species. On the south side of the mountains the plants are low, seldom over 2 dm. high, and compact. The racemes are few flowered and the leaves are small, never over 2.5 cm. wide, and rather short petioled, 1-2.5 times as long as the leaves. On the north side of the mountain the stems are very much higher, 3-7 dm. high while over 3 cm. wide and the petioles 3-5 times the length of the leaves. The stems of this second form very much resemble the branches sof L. hallii, indeed if the evidence of caudex were destroyed on one of the taller specimens of this form we very much doubt whether they could be distinguished from that species.
Common in dry open ground under the pines in the Lower Transition Zone. The color range of this species is considerable. In most any colony, a color series is usually obtainable, ranging from pure white through pink to dark blue (Nos. 1479, 1491, 1492, 2064, 2078.)

Lupinus formosus Greene. Common on dry slopes with the last and descending to the valleys.
We feel certain that there are too many forms referred to this species Trifolium monanthum grantianum Parish. Common in springy places ... above 6500 ft. alt. (No.1392).

Astragalus lentiginosus fremontii. (No. 1655).

Astragalus bicristatus. (No. 1656).

Euphorbiaceae
Tithymalus palmeri (Engelm.) Abrams. Collected by Dr. Hall (No. 1532) in Swartout Cañon at 6800 ft. alt.

Aceraceae
Acer macrophyllum. Common along streams in the Upper Chaparral Belt and Lower Transition Zone. Reaching 7300 feet altitude. (No.1568.)

Rhamnaceae
Rhamnus californica Esch. Frequent in dry sunny ground throughout the Transition Zone, reaching an altitude of 8300 ft. (No. 1568). [1568 is typographical error here or for Acer macrophyllum].

Sterenliaceae
Fremontia californica Torr. Scarce in the pine belt in San Antonio Cañon; in Prairie Fork it is common and becomes a small tree. [no voucher listed].

Malvaceae
Malvastrum fremontii orbiculatum.....gravelly floor of Prairie Fork ... (No. 1673)

Violaceae
Viola purpurea Kell. var.pinetorum Greene. A common and widely distributed plant within our limits. We have observed it from 4500 ft. alt. in the Upper Chaparral Belt up to 9600 ft., in the Canadian Zone, on Pine Mt. Summit. Mrs. Wilder (No.593) obtained specimens on the summit of Baldy. Usually growing in dry ground under the pines. (Nos. 1281, 1760, 1734).

Loasaceae
Mentzelia laevicaulis T. & G. Dry sandy ground on both sides of the mountain. Very abundant in both Prairie Fork and North Fork Lytle Creek. Collected also in the Upper Transition Zone at 8000 ft. at the Old Gold Ridge Mine.

Mentzelia congesta T. & G. var. Davidsoniana (Abrams)Macbr. But a single collection of this was seen. It grew in gravelly ground, in the lower portion of the pine belt, alt. 5750 ft. in Coldwater Fork Lytle Creek. (2059).

Datiscaceae
Datisca glomerata (Presl.) B.&H. Occasional in wet ground in Transition Zone, More common at lower levels.

Cactaceae
Opuntia occidentalis Engelm. A common mesa species along the south base of the mountains, which commonly ascends the canons and becomes frequent on dry, open, sandy canon floors in the Upper Chaparral Belt. From these situations it often penetrates a short distance up into the Lower Transition Zone.

Opuntia basilaris Engelm. & Bigel. A few plants growing with Pinus monophylla at about 6500 ft. alt. in the upper part of North Fork Lytle Creek. Lower part of the Transition Zone.

Onagraceae
Chamaenerion angustifolium Scop. Locally abundant at two stations in the Upper Transition Zone; Coldwater Fork Lytle Creek at 7000 ft. alt. and in a small side cañon of Prairie Fork, also at 7000 ft. (No. 1396)

Araliaceae
Aralia californica Wats. Occasional in moist shaded places in the Lower Transition Zone. Much more common in the Upper Chaparral Belt.

Apiaceae
Osmorhiza nuda Torr. We know it only from a marsh in a small side cañon of Prairie Fork, alt. 7000 ft., Upper Transition Zone. (No. 2084).

Cornaceae
Garrya veatchii Kell. var. palmeri (Wats.) Eastw. Abundant in the Upper Chaparral Belt. Occasional shrubs of this species are found scattered through the Lower Transition Zone. Usually in dry, sunny situations. (Nos. 1578, 1579, 1982).

Pyrolaceae
Pyrola pallida Greene. Common on moist shaded slopes in the Transition Zone. (Nos. 1478, 1585).

Monotropaceae
Pterospora andromedea Nutt. A rare plant of the Upper Transition Zone. A single plant in the Canadian Zone on Cucamonga Peak Summit. It is most abundant on the rich moist and shaded slopes in the vicinity of Kellys Cabin. (No.1612).

Sarcodes sanguinea Torr. Occasional in wet ground in Transition Zone, More common at lower levels. (No.1611).

Ericaceae
Arctostaphylos parryana Lemmon. Frequently in dry ground throughout the Lower Transition Zone. (Nos. 1575, 1576).

Primulaceae
Dodecatheon jeffreyi Van Houtte var. redolens Hall. One of most interesting discoveries in a small marsh which is located in a side cañon of Prairie Fork. The marsh has a rather steep pitch and as a result there are several well defined drainage channels in which the water comes nearer to the surface and the dense growth of fireweed and grasses is broken. In these mossy, water-saturated lanes this Dodecatheon grows. With it are Carex aurea celsa, C. sufusca, Juncus mertensianus, Sisyrinchium oreophilum, and Trifolium monanthum grantianum. The plant was devoid of any odor. The mouth of the side cañon in which the marsh is located is marked by a large, red, USFS tool -box. The marsh is at 7000 ft. alt. in the upper Transition Zone. (Nos. 1648, 2100).

Gentianaceae
Frasera neglecta Hall. The type of this species was collected by Dr. Hall (No. 1495) at the head of Swartout cañon, San Antonio Mts., 6900 ft. alt.

Apocynaceae
Apocynum cannabinum L. Occasional in moist ground in the Transition Zone. (No.1661).

Asclepiadaceae
Asclepias eriocarpa Benth. A few plants at 7000 ft. alt. on a dry sunny cañon side, Upper Transition Zone, in San Antonio cañon.

Cuscutaceae
Cuscuta californica Choisy. Not uncommon on Eriogonum and Chrysothamnus. (No.1686).

Polemoniaceae
Phlox douglasii Hook. Summit of Swartout cañon, 6800 ft. alt. Hall 1529.

Hydrophyllaceae
Turricula parryi (Gray) Macbr. A few scattered colonies were found in sunny rocky ground in the Transition Zone. On the south side of the mountain it is more common and reaches greater size in the Upper Chaparral Belt. (No. 1564).

Boraginaceae
Amsinckia intermedia. (No.1872).

Verbenaceae
Verbena prostrata R.Br. Frequent in dry sunny ground in the Lower Transition Zone. Locally abundant in springy ground, 8000 ft. alt. in the Upper Transition Zone at the Old Gold Ridge Mine. (Nos.1407, 1608).

Lamiaceae
Pycnanthemum californicum Torr. Moist ground in the lower part of the pine belt; common in the chaparral belt. (No.1715).

Solanaceae
Nicotiana bigelovii Wats. A few plants along the trail at 5400 ft. alt. in Icehouse Canon.

Scrophulariaceae
Collinsia childii Parry. Locally abundant on moist, cool, shaded canon-sides at 4500 ft. alt. in Cascade Canon. Lower Transition Zone. (No.1282).

Collinsia torreyi Gray var. wrightii (Wats.) Johnston, comb.nov. C. wrightii Wats. C. monticola Davids. Colonies of this plant are frequent under the pines in the upper part of the Transition Zone and in the Canadian Zone. Its range seems to coincide with that of Castanopsis. The highest station that we know for this interesting little plant is at 8700 ft. alt. on the saddle between Baldy and Pine Mt., but Davidson cites under his species a collection by Mr. Burlew from Baldy Summit. We have seen a collection by Dr. Hall (No.1239) from near the summit of Baldy at 9700 ft. alt. The plant is exceedingly abundant under the pines in the vicinity of Kellys Cabin, 8000-8500 ft. alt., where it colors the ground in the openings between the manzanitas and chinquapin bushes.
C. monticola was based on collections made by Dr. Hall at 6800 ft. alt. in Swartout Valley. This species, however, is an exact duplicate of Sierran C. wrightii. The only character which distinguishes Wrightii from C. torreyi is its smaller sized corolla. This character, while apparently constant, is, in our mind, not sufficient to warrant the separation of these two very closely related forms. (No.1551).

Mimulus glutinosus (Nutt.).........

Mimulus palmeri Gray. Collected by Dr. Hall (No.1449) at 5800 ft. alt. in Lytle Creek Canon.

Mimulus fremontii Lytle Creek Canon, at 6000 ft. Hall 1543.

Orobanchaceae
Orobanche californicum C. & S. On Eriodictyon at 9000 ft. alt. in the Upper Transition Zone on the Devil's Backbone. (No.1762).

Rubiaceae
Galium aparine L. Moist shaded ground in the lower portions of the Transition Zone.

Caprifoliaceae
Symphoricarpos parishii. Rydberg. (No.1389.)

Asteraceae
Lepidospartum squamatum Gray. Occasionally found in the lower portions of the Transition Zone, usually dry sandy cañon beds. (No. 1717).
Stephanomeria runicinata. (No. 1649).
Stephanomeria virgata. (No. 1654).
Crepis acuminata. (No. 1651).
Artemisia ludoviciana. (No. 1651).

Ivan Johnston's Selected Voucher Information from Rancho Santa Botanic Garden
1648 ... 08-22-17 ... POM 1648 ... "saturated ground in a small marsh in a tiny side cañon."
2100 ... 07-06-18 ... POM 3628 ... "locally abundant in marsh in a side cañon."


Ivan Johnston's Cultural Ethnobiology Comments
Regarding cultural ethnobiological statements by Ivan Johnston, this is just a beginning. For example, regarding Castanopsis sempervirens (Fagaceae), he stated: "The plant blooms in August during which time one is nearly sickened by its odor (No. 1541)."



Ivan Johnston's "Introduced Plant" Voucher Information
Ivan Johnston wrote a brief statement in his Introduction stating that Introduced plants would not be covered in the catalogue. I appreciate that as his focus was on California native plants. But curiosity still resides in this author to know the 20 plants that he found as alien introductions, particularly to know whether these have become established populations or are to be considered waifs. Ivan Johnston's quote reads as follows: "Introduced plants, which number 20, have not been included in the catalogue."





Samuel Parish on Baldy Summit in 1880: First Scientist-Collector
"High ridges on old Baldy Mountain." Lomatium parishii. Apiaceae.
Drudephytum vestitum. Apiaceae.


LeRoy Abrams on Mt. Baldy in 1901 and 1902:
July 24, 1901 on Mount San Antonio at 9,000 feet elevation he collected Abrams #1928 as Monardella cinerea, type specimen at Dudley Herbarium, now at California Academy of Sciences. Source: Abrams 1912, Muhlenbergia 8:33-34.